In the matter of planned, non-spontaneous texts that also include speeches and written discussion, the way the text is put together can be described by the elements of cohesion and coherence. While cohesion and coherence can also be displayed in causal discourse, however, it is widely stressed in planned texts since it involves a greater deal of intention and thought behind the use of devices of coherence and cohesive ties.
However, unfortunately, many people find them difficult concepts to grasp. Hence, this article is specially written to help certain individuals understand the difference between the two terms as well as offer tips on how they can improve coherence and cohesion in their writings. These tips will be illustrated with cohesion and coherence in paragraph writing examples to drive the meaning of the concepts home.
What is Coherence?
In simple words, coherence relates to the flow of one’s writing. More specifically, it refers to how well the writer has structured and organised their essay and how well their ideas are logically sequenced (Karjono, 2020).
When writing an essay, the primary purpose of the writer is to express their ideas as precisely as possible so that the reader can easily understand their ideas while reading the work. Therefore, coherence is a vital component of any essay.
What is Cohesion?
Occupying the same importance as coherence, cohesion refers to the way the writer uses grammatical structures and vocabulary to form connections between the different ideas in a text. Otherwise stated, cohesion provides sequence and flow to the writer’s work and helps with making paragraphs clear for the reader (Barroga and Matanguihan, 2021).
To better understand how the two concepts work together, let’s imagine coherence as a building and cohesion as the cement and bricks that make up the building. There is no question that cement and bricks can be used together to create any form of structure. But, forming a building is only possible when they are laid together properly. Likewise, a text can only be cohesive if it uses cohesive ties however, the condition for the text to be coherent is for the cohesive ties to be used adequately to create meaning.
It is not only essays that require coherence and cohesion. Any form of discourse, be it thesis, debate, article or any other project, coherence and cohesion is a requirement for all. Luckily, there are many Ph.D. writing services in the USA that students can avail to submit a cohesive and coherent piece of work to their supervisors.
How to Improve Coherence Skills in Your Essay
These are some of the tips that students can use to demonstrate their coherence skills in their work:
- Use different paragraphs to separate your essay
- Connect paragraphs by linking phrases
- Use paragraphs to follow a logical sequence
Let’s consider the following topic to write an essay on:
Entrance Exams versus Qualifying Exams – What is the relevance of entrance exams for admissions to Undergraduate and Postgraduate courses in India?
The writer can show their coherence skill by following the essay structure below:
- Introduction: Here, the writer should paraphrase the essay question followed by providing their stance on the topic
- Paragraph 2: The writer can discuss the relevance of entrance exams for UG courses in India
- Paragraph 3: The writer can discuss the advantages and/or disadvantages of entrance exams for UG courses in India
- Paragraph 4: The writer can discuss the relevance of entrance exams for PG courses in India
- Paragraph 5: The writer can discuss the advantages and/or disadvantages of entrance exams for PG courses in India
- Conclusion: In this section, the writer should present a summary of their arguments and restate their point of view
Additionally, to maintain a connection between body paragraphs, the writer can use linking phrases. That is, do discuss more than 1 idea starting with one concerning the relevance of the entrance exam for the UG courses in India in body paragraph 2, the writer can use phrases such as furthermoreor in addition to. Further, to form a logical sequence between advantages and disadvantages in body paragraph 3, the writer can begin writing disadvantages using phrases such as let’s not forget the fact that, on the other hand, or however.
How to Improve Cohesive Skill in Your Essay
Following are some of the tips that students can use to demonstrate their cohesive skills in work:
- The focus of each paragraph should be 1 point only to enhance clarity
- Complex sentences should be written with the correct use of punctuation
- Ideas should be linked with syntax as opposed to an excessive use of linking phrases
- Preferable to provide a relevant example to support the point made in a paragraph
Further, although writing complex sentences is recommended in secondary- and further-level writing tasks, however, they must be used correctly. Since there is a fine line between complicated sentences and complex sentences, the writer should present their thoughts without making it hard for the reader to read or understand the sentences, alternatively stated, complicated. Additionally, proper use of punctuation can also help with structuring complex sentences.
Complicated Sentence: My friends and I went to a movie, but, I did not enjoy it even though all of them liked it very much.
Complex Sentence: All of my friends had a great time watching the movie, however, I hardly enjoyed it.
Cohesive devices refer to phrases, linking words, and transitional words used in an essay (Warna et al., 2019). They are used to connote the relationship between different sentences, clauses and paragraphs.
Example of Cohesive Devices That Can be Used in Essays
- Introducing your point: in my opinion, another point that I would like to add
- Providing explanations: due to, owing to, because of
- Contrasting ideas: let’s not forget the fact that, on the other hand, alternately
- Stating examples: to illustrate this, for example, for instance
- Maintaining the sequence: to begin with, next, firstly
- Explaining results: as a result, consequently
- Adding ideas: in addition to, furthermore, moreover
- Concluding ideas: tosum up, in conclusion
However, the writer MUST avoid excessive use of cohesive devices in a single paragraph. With one too many connectors, the writing will fail to leave a mark and not sound fluent or natural. It might also confuse the reader while they read your essay.
Despite all of this, if the student still fails to structure and organise the thoughts in their work cohesively and coherently, then no need to worry. Countless services offer coursework writing help in USA. The student can either send them their essay to review for cohesion and coherency or they can have their essay written cohesively and coherently altogether by them.
Barroga, E. and Matanguihan, G.J., 2021. Creating logical flow when writing scientific articles. Journal of Korean medical science, 36(40).
Karjono, J.S., 2020. Coherence in Thesis Proposal Writings of Undergraduate Students. JELLT (Journal of English Language and Language Teaching), 4(1), pp.17-30.
Warna, D., Wijaya, B., Sartika, E. and Riznanda, W.A., 2019. Cohesive devices used in argumentative essays of undergraduate EFL students in Indonesia. ENGLISH FRANCA: Academic Journal of English Language and Education, 3(02), p.125.